Order Assignment This order has already been completed on Studybay On Studybay you can order your academic assignment from one of our professional writers. Hire your writer directly, without overpaying for agencies and affiliates! Check price for your assignment 18 total offers received. Kimz21 Critical Analysis of Enlightenment Attitudes Take into consideration the multiple ideological elements of Enlightenment as an analytical framework through which to approach Robinson Crusoe.
A better society through reason, knowledge, toleration and moderation. The novel makes fun of all the 18th century institutions and philosophies that don't make sense -- aren't reasonable and fair -- and concludes with a vision of what society could and should be like if it were "Enlightened": Inoculation Thinking about Voltaire's position on inoculating against smallpox is perhaps the easiest way to "get" Voltaire, and in so doing "get" what the Enlightenment was all about.
First recall that even in the s, "medicine" consisted almost entirely of "bleeding" and prayer. For the most part, most people believed disease was caused by an imbalance in the four "humors" black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, blood.
During the 18th century, small pox killed an estimatedEuropeans a year.
Those who survived were often left blind and certainly gruesomely scarred. But primitive inoculation against the disease was practiced throughout the world, perhaps first in Africa, for thousands of years, while Christian Europe associated the practice as pagan or a form of witchcraft, or negatively for its use by Muslims.
The British, however, began experimenting with the practice in the earlyand Voltaire is credited with having brought and spread the method to the European continent, as argued in his then widely read Letter On Inoculation. When you think about Voltaire's response to the Lisbon earthquake or organized religion see belowsimply consider that Enlightenment philosophy attempts to understand and alleviate human suffering by thinking about phenomena as having natural or man-made causes -- and thus man-made solutions.
Science argues that the cause of smallpox is nature not sin, as previously believedand understanding nature will help us cure the disease that's why no one in this classroom has ever had it ; similarly, nature not God causes earthquakes, and understanding their cause and function will allow us to build safer cities.
Meanwhile, in Voltaire's lifetime inoculation was widely attacked the church, much the way certain medical procedures have been in your own lifetime, and although some European Americans experimented with smallpox inoculation as early as at the urging of Cotton Mather, who, really ironically, would later gain notoriety for his role in the Salem Witch TrialsbyperhapsEuropeans and North Americans had been vaccinated worldwide.
As a philosopher, Voltaire combines: He loathes Judaism for its emphasis on a god that would chose one people over all others -- a quality clearly at odds with egalitarian democracy "all men are created equal".
He loathes priests he was educated by Jesuits for their emphasis on superstition, ritual and the supernatural -- qualities clearly at odds with science and reason. He loathes reformation Protestants for their return to puritanical authoritarianism -- at odds with the inherent freedom of the individual.
But in the ss Voltaire becomes the loudest public voice in defense of these same groups, risking his reputation on protecting their civil liberties and repeatedly intervening to protect the legal rights of religious minorities, especially of minority Protestants "Huguenots" in his native France: In the Calas affair, a Protestant family was accused of having hanged their son, who was depressed and suicidal, because the son was going to convert to Catholicism.
The father was tortured and killed [on the wheel]by the state, and the daughters were sent to nunneries. Voltaire saw that this was a case of judicial murder and undertook to rehabilitate the family and to have the verdict successfully overturned. In a similar case, the Protestant Sirvan family was accused of murdering a daughter, who had in fact actually committed suicide.
Voltaire succeeded in having the case reexamined and used the matter to bring about revisions in the judicial process, while isolating religious intolerance as the cause of such abuse.
Finally, in the La Barre affair, Voltaire was appalled by the case of a nineteen-year-old, poor aristocrat with no family, who was tortured and burned for having allegedly mutilated a crucifix. Alan Kors So, despite the apparent cynicism and even bigotry satirically expressed in Candide, Voltaire universalizes and popularizes the Toleration that his hero, John Locke, had used to end the English Civil War.
Recall that Locke wanted religious toleration for all faiths in England, except for Catholicism, since Catholics held allegiance to the Pope.
But in his "Treatise On Tolerance" Voltaire goes further than Locke and explicitly includes Catholics as well but not atheists, btw.Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
A Comparison Puritan or Enlightenment "I Believe" or "I Think" Truth: Revealed or Discovered Faith or Reason The Puritans emphasize Both Puritan and Enlightenment thinkers come at "truth" in different ways: For the Puritans, God is the source of truth, and all truth is revealed.
Enlightenment philosophers John Locke, Charles Montesquieu, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau all developed theories of government in which some or even all the people would govern.
These thinkers had a profound effect on the American and French revolutions and .
European women from the Reformation through the Enlightenment.” B. Argument Development: Using the Targeted Historical Thinking Skill (2 points) Targeted Skill: Argumentation (E2 and E3) and Continuity and Change (D3 and D4) EUROPEAN HISTORY SCORING GUIDELINES.
A Comparison Of Enlightenment Thinking Essay words - 4 pages In A Modest Proposal, Jonathan Swift challenges the Neo-classical period by creating a sense of instability in their way of thinking. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.