Overview[ edit ] Executive functioning is a theoretical construct representing a domain of cognitive processes that regulate, control, and manage other cognitive processes. Executive functioning is not a unitary concept; it is a broad description of the set of processes involved in certain areas of cognitive and behavioural control. Executive dysfunction does occur to a minor degree in all individuals on both short-term and long-term scales. In non-clinical populations, the activation of executive processes appears to inhibit further activation of the same processes, suggesting a mechanism for normal fluctuations in executive control.
Over the past several years, ADD or A. While helpful to those challenged by this disability, such widespread recognition creates the possibility of improper diagnostic practice and inappropriate treatment.
What is Attention-Deficit Disorder? OR ADHD ] is now divided into three subtypes, according to the main features associated with the disorder: The three subtypes are: OR ADHD ] have little or no trouble sitting still or inhibiting behavior, but may be predominantly inattentive and, as a result, have great difficulty getting or staying focused on a task or activity.
OR ADHD ] may be able to pay attention to a task but lose focus because they may be predominantly hyperactive-impulsive and, thus, have trouble controlling impulse and activity. The most prevalent subtype is the Combined Type. These children will have significant symptoms of all three characteristics.
Scientific evidence suggests that the disorder is genetically transmitted in many cases and results from a chemical imbalance or deficiency in certain neurotransmitters, which are chemicals that help the brain regulate behavior.
As can be seen, the primary features associated with the disability are inattention,hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
The discussion below describes each of these features and lists their symptoms, as given in the DSM-IV. In actuality, distractibility and inattentiveness are not synonymous.
Distractibility refers to the short attention span and the ease with which some children can be pulled off-task. Attention, on the other hand, is a process that has different parts.
We focus pick something on which to pay attentionwe select pick something that needs attention at that moment and we sustain pay attention for as long as is needed.
We also resist avoid things that remove our attention from where it needs to beand we shift move our attention to something else when needed. When we refer to someone as distractible, we are saying that a part of that person's attention process is disrupted. Some children may have difficulty concentrating on tasks particularly on tasks that are routine or boring.
Others may have trouble knowing where to start a task. Still others may get lost in the directions along the way.
A careful observer can watch and see where the attention process breaks down for a particular child. By adolescence and adulthood, the overactivity may appear as restless, fidgety behavior American Psychiatric Association, Children with attention deficit disorder and/or learning disabilities can be a challenge for any classroom teacher.
This page provides some practical suggestions that can be used in the regular classroom as well as the special education classroom. Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments, affect millions of children worldwide, and some diagnoses seem to be increasing in frequency.
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At last, a career guide written for people with learning disabilities by someone with firsthand experience! Learning a Living.
Running Head: DISABILITY CATEGORIES & INTERVENTIONS 1. Characteristics of Specific Learning Disabilities and ADHD & ADHD with Inattention. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is the most common mental disorders of childhood and affects 3 to 6 percent of the child population (about million kids) in the United States.
Approximately 15 million people in the United States have Attention Deficit Disorder, but there are many aspects of this. Printer-friendly Version: Every year the National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY) receives thousands of requests for information about the education and special needs of children and youth .