In the Persian Wars, in the first third of the fifth century BCE, Athens and Sparta were begruding allies who cooperated to help repel the Persian invasion of mainland Greece. After the Persian Wars, relations between Athens and Sparta deteriorated and the two city-states found themselves at odds with one another throughout virtually all of the rest of the fifth century BCE.
As far as the Greeks were concerned, the change in masters made little difference.
As subjects of Croesus, the king of Lydia, they had largely been left to handle their own affairs with little or no interference. At first, the new Persian overlords also followed such a policy of non-interference — provided they paid their taxes and contributed to the Royal army or to be more precise, the Royal navy.
As in the rest of their empire, the Persians did not interfere with the local governments and customs of their newly acquired Greek cities. Consequently, the Greeks themselves were content to remain within the empire, particularly since the pax Persica proved good for trade and business.
Darius faced internal rebellions and opposition and was able to assert his authority only after years of fighting. When secure, he began the reorganization of the empire, especially imperial finances.
As taxes rose substantially, the Ionian Greeks began to chafe at their subjection - a feeling made worse by the political developments they could see on the Greek mainland. Although Miletus lies inland today, during the classical era sea levels were higher and the city lay at the head of a bay on the Aegean coast.
They appealed to the cities of mainland Greece for help but only Athens and Eretria responded favorably -- and modestly Athens with twenty ships, Eretria with five.
It soon became clear that the Greeks of Ionia had misjudged the will and resources of the Persian Empire. By the revolt was crushed, the city of Miletus destroyed, her population deported or sold into slavery.
The Ionian Revolt against the Persian Empire, http: He had also been active diplomatically in Macedonia, which eventually submitted to his authority as a client state. Now he had a reason to interfere in the Greek peninsula as well, to punish Athens and Eretria for their support of the Ionian rebels.
Inhe sent a Persian army under the command of one of his generals across the Aegean.
After destroying Eretria, the Persians landed on the coast of Attica at Marathonsome twenty miles from Athens. There, to the surprise of all, the Athenians defeated the Persian forces and pushed them back to the sea.
Above left, Greek helmet and the skull found within it at the battle site now in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto ; above right, the Plain of Marathon as it is today. In reality, for the Persians the defeat at Marathon was only a minor set-back, although a rather humiliating one.
Once he learned of the outcome, Darius decided to correct his general's mistake by personally leading a massive invasion of Greece by land and sea.
After three years of planning, however, indistracted and depressed by a rebellion in Egypt, Darius himself died.
His heir, Xerxes I, ascended the throne. Although determined to continue with his father's plans for Greece, Xerxes first had to contend with a rebellion led by his half-brother, as well as provincial revolts, before any overseas campaigns could begin; the invasion of Greece had to be postponed for another six years.
Deciding to invade Greece overland, he moved his huge army to the Hellespont, the narrow body of water known today as the Dardanelles that joins the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, separating Europe and Asia. To cross the straits, he had his engineers construct a remarkable pontoon bridge.
After laying boats side by side all the way across the channel and lashing them together, the Persians then built a roadway over the boats wide enough and strong enough to accommodate the whole army. Once across, Xerxes marched his troops west then south along the coast to invade Greece, while just off-shore the Persian fleet protected the army's flank by sea.Transcript of Review of the Delian League.
– nature of Athenian imperialism; changing relations with allies Athenian involvement in the judicial affairs of her allies may have begun quite early.
A decree relating to Phaselis, probably passed after , clearly defines the judicial relationship between Athens and Phaselis. Athenian Imperialism and the Problem of Justice Thucydides’ central theme is Athenian imperialism.
Repeatedly in his pages we hear Athens’ spokesmen defend the city’s imperialism by denying that “right” or justice has any role in relations between cities. Greek World Revision of Cimon and Aristides the Just attheheels.comormation of the Delian League into the Athenian empire attheheels.com of Athenian imperialism; changing relations with allies attheheels.com democratic developments: influence of the thetes, ostracism, citizenship law 3 Athens and Sparta attheheels.com of Persian Wars attheheels.com, composition and.
The allies were indeed furious at the way their money was spent, but Pericles replied that so long as Athens protected her allies from the Persians it was not their concern how their money was spent.
The Parthenon (Courtesy Department of Archaeology, Boston University). Through the changing relationships between Athens and her allies the transformation from Delian League to Athenian Empire is made clear.
Despite the peace treaties following these attheheels.com walls were complete. until the earthquake in Sparta and resulting helot (slave) rebellion in BCE. Nature of Athenian Imperialism. Changing Relations with Allies.
Lars Hoogvliet. After the conclusion of the Persian Wars (BC) with Athens being the true victor, and before the Peloponnesian War, a period of prosperity covered Athens, and they needed to devise new ways to protect themselves and expand their wealth, and how this would affect their relations with allies.4/5(2).