Facility layout refers to the way in which work stations, equipment, machinery and employees are positioned within a work facility. Process selection involves strategically choosing which types of work processes to include in the production of a product. Process selection and facility layout are both important elements of operations management.
Facility Layout and Design Facility Layout and Design Facility layout and design is an important component of a business's overall operations, both in terms of maximizing the effectiveness of the production process and meeting the needs of employees. The basic objective of layout is to ensure a smooth flow of work, material, and information through a system.
The basic meaning of facility is the space in which a business's activities take place.
Facility Layout Basics. Business owners have a range of options to choose from when it comes to designing their facilities layouts, depending on the total size of the buildings, yards and other. Facility design and layout in the material handling industry affects the productivity, profitability, and adaptability of your company for years. One of the best business decisions you can make is to engage an expert in material handling system design when planning your facility layout. Increasing global competition, rapid changes in technology and the necessity to respond quickly to a cost and quality conscious customer have changed the dynamics of facilities planning. Today's manufacturing facility needs to be responsive to the frequent changes in product mix and demand while minimizing material handling and machine relocation costs.
The layout and design of that space impact greatly how the work is done—the flow of work, materials, and information through the system. The key to good facility layout and design is the integration of the needs of people personnel and customersmaterials raw, finishes, and in processand machinery in such a way that they create a single, well-functioning system.
These criteria include the following: Ease of future expansion or change—Facilities should be designed so that they can be easily expanded or adjusted to meet changing production needs. Flexible manufacturing systems most often are highly automated facilities having intermediate-volume production of a variety of products.
Their goal is to minimize changeover or setup times for producing the different products while still achieving close to Facility layout line single-product production rates.
In the case of factory facilities, the editors of How to Run a Small Business state that "ideally, the plan will show the raw materials entering your plant at one end and the finished product emerging at the other.
The flow need not be a straight line. Parallel flows, U-shaped patterns, or even a zig-zag that ends up with the finished Facility layout back at the shipping and receiving bays can be functional.
However, backtracking is to be avoided in whatever pattern is chosen. When parts and materials move against or across the overall flow, personnel and paperwork become confused, parts become lost, and the attainment of coordination becomes complicated.
Output needs—The facility should be laid out in a way that is conducive to helping the business meet its production needs. Space utilization—This aspect of facility design includes everything from making sure that traffic lanes are wide enough to making certain that inventory storage warehouses or rooms utilize as much vertical space as possible.
Shipping and receiving—The J. Lasser Institute counseled small business owners to leave ample room for this aspect of operations. Ease of communication and support—Facilities should be laid out so that communication within various areas of the business and interactions with vendors and customers can be done in an easy and effective manner.
Similarly, support areas should be stationed in areas that help them to serve operating areas. Impact on employee morale and job satisfaction—Since countless studies have indicated that employee morale has a major impact on productivity, Weiss and Gershon counsel owners and managers to heed this factor when pondering facility design alternatives: Other ways are less obvious and not directly related to the production process.
Some examples are including a cafeteria or even a gymnasium in the facility design. Again, though, there are costs to be traded off. That is, does the increase in morale due to a cafeteria increase productivity to the extent that the increased productivity covers the cost of building and staffing the cafeteria.
Safety—The facility layout should enable the business to effectively operate in accordance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines and other legal restrictions. Essentially, there are two distinct types of layout.
Product layout is synonymous with assembly line and is oriented toward the products that are being made.
Process layout is oriented around the processes that are used to make the products. Generally, product layout is applicable for high-volume repetitive operations, while process layout is applicable for low-volume custom-made goods.
A layout criterion is minimization of transportation cost. Layout requirements can also differ dramatically by industry. The needs of service-oriented businesses, for instance, are often predicated on whether customers receive their services at the physical location of the business such as at a bank or pet grooming shop, for instance or whether the business goes to the customer's home or place of business to provide the service as with exterminators, home repair businesses, plumbing services, etc.
In the latter instances, these businesses will likely have facility layouts that emphasize storage space for equipment, chemicals, and paperwork rather than spacious customer waiting areas. Manufacturers may also have significantly different facility layouts, depending on the unique needs that they have.
After all, the production challenges associated with producing jars of varnish or mountaineering equipment are apt to be considerably different than those of making truck chassis or foam beach toys.
Retail outlets comprise yet another business sector that has unique facility layout needs. Such establishments typically emphasize sales floor space, inventory logistics, foot-traffic issues, and overall store attractiveness when studying facility layout issues. Konz also observed that differences in factory and office layouts can often be traced to user expectations.
Rank expects more privacy and more plush physical surroundings. Given these emphases, it is not surprising that, as a general rule, office workers will enjoy advantages over their material production brethren in such areas as ventilation, lighting, acoustics, and climate control.
Life in the Fast Lane. How to Run a Small Business.
Fraticelli, and Russell D. Production and Operations Management.Facility layout and design is an important component of a business's overall operations, both in terms of maximizing the effectiveness of the production process and meeting the needs of employees.
Facility Layout Basics. Business owners have a range of options to choose from when it comes to designing their facilities layouts, depending on the total size of the buildings, yards and other. Facility design and layout in the material handling industry affects the productivity, profitability, and adaptability of your company for years.
One of the best business decisions you can make is to engage an expert in material handling system design when planning your facility layout. Facility Layout 1. Facility Layout 2. Contents: Facility Layout – Meaning, Objectives Factors influencing Layout Facility Layout – Principle and Imporatnce Types of layout Revision of Layout Layout Planning Case Study.
Definition Facility Layout Arrangement of everything within a facility departments, workgroups, machines, etc. The goal is to ensure a smooth and. While facility layout for services may be similar to that for manufacturing, it also may be somewhat different—as is the case with offices, retailers, and warehouses.
Because of its relative permanence, facility layout probably is one of the most crucial elements affecting efficiency.