Esterification Fischer esterification is an example of nucleophilic acyl substitution based on the electrophilicity of the carbonyl carbon and the nucleophilicity of an alcohol. However, carboxylic acids tend to be less reactive than esters as electrophiles. Additionally, in dilute neutral solutions they tend to be deprotonated anions and thus unreactive as electrophiles. Though very kinetically slow without any catalysts most esters are metastablepure esters will tend to spontaneously hydrolyse in the presence of water, so when carried out "unaided", high yields for this reaction is quite unfavourable.
Absolute Alcohol Using Glycerine -- Mariller's absolute alcohol production process by dehydration using glycerine. Production and Testing of Ethyl and Methyl Esters University of Idaho, Dec Abstract Test quantities of ethyl and methyl esters of four renewable fuels were processed, characterized and performance tested.
Canola, rapeseed, soybean oils, and beef tallow were the feedstocks for the methyl and ethyl esters. Previous results have shown methyl esters to be a suitable replacement for diesel fuel; however, much less has been known about the ethyl esters.
A complete set of fuel properties and a comparison of each fuel in engine performance tests are reported. The study examines short term engine tests with both methyl and ethyl ester fuels compared to number 2 diesel fuel D2.
Three engine performance tests were conducted including an engine mapping procedure, an injector coking screening test, and an engine power study. The gross heat contents of the biodiesel fuels, on a mass basis, were 9 to 13 percent lower than D2.
The viscosities of biodiesel were twice that of diesel. The cloud and pour points of D2 were significantly lower than the biodiesel fuels. The biodiesel fuels produced slightly lower power and torque and higher fuel consumption than D2.
In general, the physical and chemical properties and the performance of ethyl esters were comparable to those of the methyl esters.
Ethyl and methyl esters have almost the same heat content. The viscosities of the ethyl esters is slightly higher and the cloud and pour points are slightly lower than those of the methyl esters. Engine tests demonstrated that methyl esters produced slightly higher power and torque than ethyl esters.
Fuel consumption when using the methyl and ethyl esters are nearly identical. Some desirable attributes of the ethyl esters over methyl esters were: The ethyl esters tended to have more injector coking than the methyl esters and the ethyl esters had a higher glycerol content than the methyl esters.
Introduction Vegetable oil as an alternative fuel has been under study at the University of Idaho since Peterson et al. Since then researchers at Idaho have pioneered the use of rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel substitute. Although short term tests using neat vegetable oil showed promising results, longer tests led to injector coking, more engine deposits, ring sticking, and thickening of the engine lubricant.
This experience led to the use of modified vegetable oil as a fuel. Although there are many ways and procedures to convert vegetable oil into a diesel-like fuel, the transesterification process was found to be the most viable oil modification process for Idaho researchers.
Transesterification is the process of using an alcohol e. The University of Idaho Department of Agricultural Engineering operates an oil extraction plant of 19 liters per hour capacity and a batch esterification reactor of liters capacity.
Recipes have been developed for producing both ethyl and methyl esters of renewable oils. Fuel tests currently performed by the Department of Agricultural Engineering are heat of combustion, viscosity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, density, specific gravity, API gravity, residual catalyst, and alcohol content.
Transesterified, renewable oils have proven to be a viable alternative diesel engine fuel with characteristics similar to those of diesel fuel.
Literature Review The emergence of transesterification can be dated back to as early as when Rochieder described glycerol preparation through ethanolysis of castor oil Fermo, Since that time alcoholysis has been studied in many parts of the world.
Other researchers have also investigated the important reaction conditions and parameters on the alcoholysis of triglycerides, such as fish oils, soybean, rapeseed, cottonseed, sunflower, safflower, peanut and linseed oils to produce ethyl and methyl esters Chancellor and Rauback, ; Clark et al.
The first esterification was catalyzed by an acidic chemical and the second by an alkali.
The application of heat during the reaction is not economically sound because of the additional cost and reduced energy efficiency. Nye and Southwell were the only workers to report a successful process for the transesterification of rapeseed oil at room temperature by systematically optimizing the other variables.
In Idaho, a considerable number of graduate students have investigated the optimization of the reaction variables temperature, agitation time, catalyst amount, ratio of alcohol to rapeseed oil and degree of lipid conversion Bam, ; Feldman, ; Jo, ; Madsen, ; Melville, ; Mosgrove, ; Perkins et al.
They have confirmed the works of Nye and Southwell. Based on their bench-scale results, workers at the UI Agricultural Engineering Department developed a small pilot plant system for rapeseed methyl and ethyl ester production Peterson et al.
The reactor is also utilized as a washing tank for the ester. A separate alcohol-catalyst mixer, made of a liter plastic barrel, serves as an accessory to the reactor. The reactor and the oil press constitute the farm-scale rapeseed oil and Biodiesel processing plant.The topic contains two main types of papers: lignin production (extraction of the lignin from residues in biomass processes) and lignin modification (improvement of functionalities and .
One of the most popular figures among the academic community, cellulosic ethanol pioneer Lonnie Ingram, whose lab produced much of the magic behind Verenium’s technology, is less well known in the broader global bioenergy industry, but nevertheless held .
Mice homozygous for the Apoe tm1Unc mutation show a marked increase in total plasma cholesterol levels that are unaffected by age or gender. Fatty streaks in the proximal aorta are found at three months of age.
The lesions increase with age and progress to lesions with less lipid but more elongated cells, typical of a more advanced stage of pre-atherosclerotic lesion.
Johns Hopkins Introductory Organic Chemistry Lab Lab Report II: The Synthesis of Isopentyl Acetate from Glacial Acetic Acid and Isopentyl Alcohol via Fischer Esterification in the Presence of an Acid Catalyst.
Chemical Production Equipment List. Pressure Chemical Co. (PCC) has provided process development, piloting, scale up and manufacturing services to the chemical industry for over 50 years.
I. Pre-Lab Report A. Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to convert benzoic acid to methyl benzoate via an acid catalyzed reaction with methanol. The reaction will be prepared by Fischer esterification, which involves the reaction reaching equilibrium after refluxing for a few hours.