It is believed that Indonesia must have existed during the Pleistocene period 4 million years BC when it was linked with the present Asian mainland. It was during this period that the Homonids made their first appearance and Java Man inhabited the part of the world now called Indonesia. Java Man, named Pithecanthropus Erectus by Eugence Dubois who found the fossils on the island of Java, must have been the first inhabitant of Indonesia.
Overview of Indonesian Law including history An extremely vast archipelago of more than 13, islands, Indonesia is home for at least ethnic and sub-ethnic groups. Over languages and dialects are native to Indonesia. For centuries before its exposure to Western civilization, each group had developed its own customary law, officially called adat law hukum adatand almost all were influenced by Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam.
Not to a lesser degree, Islamic law is also a parallel independent legal system. Dutch Era Inthe Portuguese established its trade connection in Indonesia.
Yet it is the Dutch who established the Roman-Dutch civil law legal system to facilitate its trade and political-economic interest. This era of years comprises of a period of exclusive trade by a company with a maritime power- the Dutch East India Company or Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie VOC starting inand a period of official colonization by the Dutch starting in early In the latter period, Indonesia was referred to as the Netherlands East Indies.
It should be noted however, that the Dutch did not dominate the whole archipelago at the same time, but slowly. The longest presence of three and a half century was in Jawa Indonesian education writing. Aceh, on Indonesian education writing other hand, is among the shortest.
Resistance from local kingdoms and communities were the strongest factor. The British ruled for a short period from but did not make significant changes to the existing legal system for this purpose.
Facing the diversities of Indonesians, the Dutch popularized the use of Malay language throughout Indonesia. Roman script was used as official writing system.
The Dutch did not deal with or govern the Indonesians directly, but through the aristocrats and the oriental settlers.
Accordingly, population was divided into three classes: The segregation was in the area of commerce, land, family, inheritance, and most of private or civil laws.
Quite differently, the criminal legal system was once dualistic, for Indonesians and Europeans, but in it was unified. Administration of justice was extended to the Islamic indigenous Indonesians at a minimum degree relative to the rest of the populations.
The first legislation relating to application of Islamic law was the Royal Decree establishing Priest Court in the islands of Jawa and Madura with jurisdiction over family and inheritance law. The following list of major legislations set the social and legal policy in the Netherlands East Indies: These legislations are available here.
Japanese Era Propelled by acquisitive motive for war supplies the Japanese entered Indonesia relatively easy due to their ability to fit in with the political trend of the time. This period of exploitation under Japanese martial law caused serious hardship but also set the positive political circumstances leading to the declaration of independence on August 17, Transitional Provision Article I and II of the Constitution states that all legislations and institutions from the colonial period remain valid and in place until they are revoked and replaced.
On that ground, not surprisingly, most colonial legislations are still valid with revocations of particular articles or body of law even until now. As in any other country, political trend shapes the development and characters of Indonesian legal system.
The independence era can be classified as: Early independence era was characterized with arms conflicts against the former colonial ruler and struggles to overcome separatist movements. In fact, the Constitution was replaced by the Constitution of Federations or United States of Indonesia from to and by the Provisional Constitution from to Not until the Guided Democracy era was the development of a national legal system taken seriously.
It unifies dualistic substantive adat and codified civil law concerning land law into one system. In this historical context, the beginning of New Order era was drawn. Since the second Indonesian President Soeharto took office, several legislations were enacted with the view of further developing the national legal system: Serving as non authoritative but important resource is Compilations of Islamic Law Kompilasi Hukum Islam authored by government officials in the Ministry of Religion and Supreme Court Judges in on family, inheritance, wakaf religious foundationand shadaqah religious donation or tithe.
However, New Order era had its downsides. With the view to stabilize ideological and political unrests and unruly competitions, a set of legislations and institutions, including the infamous Anti Subversion Law ofwas put in place. Additionally, the judiciary was consistently marginalized and stripped of its power as an equal branch of the government.
Administration of justice was conducted by the executive branch: Violation of human rights was one of several issues that drew worldwide criticism.
The Judiciary lost its respect in the eyes of the public. Corruption, collusion, and nepotism were fairly associated with the executive, judiciary, and legislative branch of the government.
When the opposing powers gained the momentum, President Soeharto resigned in Mayand a new era started.Through hands-on experience, broaden your understanding of face painting and improve your creative skills.
Your new skills will make you sought after for children's and adult parties, charity functions and photographic work. According to the blog, school documents recorded Barry’s father as L.
Soetoro Ma, a worker in the director general’s office in the TNI Topography division of the Indonesian army. The world's leading refereed and indexed journals for second language research. According to Indonesian law, the Indonesian language was proclaimed as the unifying language during Sumpah Pemuda on 28 October , developed further .
Scientific Writing E Indonesian Education Weaknesses l. There are three weaknesses of Indonesian education. II.
The first weakness is less facilities. A. We don’t have sufficient learning facilities. B. Remote areas are usually unreachable of good facility. Ill. The second weakness is . Indonesia's History and Background. Sukarno, Indonesia's founding president ANCIENT TIMES. Indonesia did not exist as yet during the Palaeocene period (70 million years BC), the Eocene period (30 million years BC), the Oligacene period (25 million years .