What does he hope to accomplish? Is he trying to change the world and manipulate the future?
It is also experienced as overwhelmingly real and valuable—indeed, so real and so valuable that, in comparison, all other things appear empty and worthless. As such, it demands total surrender and promises total fulfillment. For one thing, it is doubtful that ultimate concern is either a necessary or a sufficient condition of a religious attitude.
Nevertheless, ultimate concern does appear to be a distinctive feature of the religious attitudes of devout members of the major religious traditions. These attitudes seem fully appropriate only if their object is maximally great—so perfect and splendid that nothing greater is conceivable.
And, in fact, the major religious traditions have if only implicitly construed the object of their devotion in precisely these terms. The nature of maximal perfection is controversial, however. Ultimate concern may take the form of worship, and involve praise, love, gratitude, supplication, confession, petition, and the like.
But it can also take the form of a quest for the ultimate good. The object of the quest is an existentially appropriated knowledge of the ultimate good or a union with it that transforms us and overcomes our wrongness. The two forms of ultimate concern may be combined or exist separately.
Christianity and theistic Hinduism combine both. In Theravada Buddhism and Taoism, on the other hand, ultimate concern typically takes the second form but not the first.
The form ultimate concern takes in a community incorporates its most fundamental evaluations, and the authoritative texts which express and shape its ultimate concern present pictures of the world and our place in it which include explicit or implicit metaphysical claims.
Since the form ultimate concern takes, the texts regarded as authoritative, and the metaphysical assumptions and evaluations inextricably bound up with these forms and texts vary from one religious community to another, it is hardly surprising that conceptions of maximal greatness vary as well.
The most striking disagreement is between those who regard the divine reality as personal and those who do not. Theists believe that even though the object of their ultimate concern transcends all finite realities it is more like a person than anything else with which we are ordinarily familiar, and typically conceptualize it as a maximally perfect person.
Persons are rational agents, however—beings who have beliefs about themselves and the world and act on the basis of them. The major theistic traditions have therefore described ultimate reality as an omniscient mind and an omnipotent will.
Other religious traditions are non-theistic. Advaita Vedanta is an important example. If Brahman is all there is, for example,then there is nothing outside Brahman that could serve as an object of its knowledge.
And if it is devoid of internal diversity, there can be no self-knowledge either, for self-knowledge involves an internal differentiation between the self as knower and the self as known. Nor can the Brahman be a causal agent.
If Brahman is maximally perfect, it must be unlimited. But it is limited if something exists outside it. The Brahman must therefore be all there is. If the Brahman is identical with the whole of reality, though, and Brahman contains no plurality, then reality as a whole is an undifferentiated unity.
The space-time world with its distinctions between times, places, and events is consequently unreal. Real causal relations are relations between two real things, however. It follows from these considerations that Brahman is neither an omniscient mind nor an omnipotent and active will.
It cannot be a maximally perfect person, therefore, and so cannot be God. The former is the Brahman without attributes.Welcome to Rebellion Dogs Publishing, home to Rebellion Dogs Radio, Beyond Belief: Agnostic Musings for 12 Step Life and a community for freethinkers in recovery.
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| print this. S T U D Y G U I D E. T O T H E. A A B I G B O O K. With emphasis upon Principles before Personalities. this Study Guide presents "A SPIRITUAL VIEW BEYOND THE LIMITS OF TRADITIONAL RELIGION". Theism: Theism, the view that all limited or finite things are dependent in some way on one supreme or ultimate reality of which one may also speak in personal terms.
In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, this ultimate reality is often called God. This article explores approaches to theism in Western. Comparatie Religions-test 1.
STUDY. PLAY. The word religion is usually interpreted by scholars to mean A) renewal. the idea that religious art should be impermanent. C) the assumption that they are not complex. is a means of conforming daily life to mythic events. C) must be established near a striking natural site.
Albert Einstein Quotes on Philosophy of Religion, Theology, God The religion of the future will be a cosmic religion. It should transcend personal God . The Priest-Physicist Who Would Marry Science to Religion John Polkinghorne leads a disparate group of scientists the controversial search for God.