This article discusses the history of Australia from the arrival of European explorers in the 16th century to the present. For a more detailed discussion of Aboriginal culture, see Australian Aboriginal peoples.
Initially, the Protestant reformers maintained the hope that they could accomplish the reformation of the doctrine and life of the church from within, but this proved impossible because of the intransigence of the church, the polemic of the Protestant movements, or the political and… The Reformation of the 16th century was not unprecedented.
Reformers within the medieval church such as St. Francis of AssisiValdes founder of the WaldensiansJan Husand John Wycliffe addressed aspects in the life of the church in the centuries before In the 16th century Erasmus of Rotterdama great humanist scholar, was the chief proponent of liberal Catholic reform that attacked popular superstitions in the church and urged the imitation of Christ as the supreme moral teacher.
In his Ninety-five Theses, he attacked the indulgence system, insisting that the pope had no authority over purgatory and that the doctrine of the merits of the saints had no foundation in the gospel.
Scripture alone is authoritative sola scriptura and justification is by faith sola fidenot by works. While he did not intend to break with the Catholic church, a confrontation with the papacy was not long in coming.
In Luther was excommunicated ; what began as an internal reform movement had become a fracture in western Christendom. The sale of indulgences in church; woodcut from the title page of Luther's pamphlet On Aplas von Rom, published anonymously in Augsburg, Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum; photograph, John R.
The Reformation movement within Germany diversified almost immediately, and other reform impulses arose independently of Luther. Zwingli agreed with Luther in the centrality of the doctrine of justification by faith, but he espoused a different understanding of the Holy Communion.
Courtesy of the Kunstmuseum Winterthur, Switz. Called Anabaptiststhey remained a marginal phenomenon in the 16th century but survived—despite fierce persecution—as Mennonites and Hutterites into the 21st century.
Opponents of the ancient Trinitarian dogma made their appearance as well. Known as Sociniansafter the name of their founder, they established flourishing congregations, especially in Poland.
Another important form of Protestantism as those protesting against their suppressions were designated by the Diet of Speyer in is Calvinismnamed for John Calvina French lawyer who fled France after his conversion to the Protestant cause. In BaselSwitzerland, Calvin brought out the first edition of his Institutes of the Christian Religion inthe first systematic, theological treatise of the new reform movement.
However, he found a more positive place for law within the Christian community than did Luther. In GenevaCalvin was able to experiment with his ideal of a disciplined community of the elect.
Calvin also stressed the doctrine of predestination and interpreted Holy Communion as a spiritual partaking of the body and blood of Christ. The Reformation spread to other European countries over the course of the 16th century.
By mid century, Lutheranism dominated northern Europe. Eastern Europe offered a seedbed for even more radical varieties of Protestantism, because kings were weak, nobles strong, and cities few, and because religious pluralism had long existed.
Spain and Italy were to be the great centres of the Catholic Counter-Reformationand Protestantism never gained a strong foothold there.
In spite of its political implicationsthe reorganization of the church permitted the beginning of religious change in England, which included the preparation of a liturgy in English, the Book of Common Prayer. In ScotlandJohn Knoxwho spent time in Geneva and was greatly influenced by John Calvin, led the establishment of Presbyterianismwhich made possible the eventual union of Scotland with England.
For further treatment of the Reformation, see Protestantism, history of. For a discussion of the religious doctrine, see Protestantism. Holbein, Hans, the Younger:Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
This view stands in contrast to the "organic," or non-linear, view of history first put forward by the renowned philosopher and historian, Oswald Spengler, early in the 20th century.
Modern history . Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, and European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or .
Our book list for children has Australian history books, classic Australian stories, Australian historical fiction and biographies of famous Australians. Dec 02, · The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic Europe, setting in place the structures and beliefs that would.
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