Download as PowerPoint Slide Fig. Relaxed-eyed images of salt bridges and hydrogen bonds between key molecular moieties in the vicinity of the lipase lid. Relaxed-eyed stereo view of the lid-triad region showing interactions of S with Q, E, and K Relaxed-eyed stereo view of the same region as A showing the extensive salt bridges and hydrogen bonds between the lid and the triad loop on the right side and the lid and other residues on the left side the opposite side of the lid from the triad.
Int J Mol Sci.
Published online Jun Find articles by Leticia Nascimento Victoria C. Find articles by Victoria C. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Mass in C minor K (Revision Louis Langrée): Kyrie Natalie Dessay/Véronique Gens/Topi Lehtipuu/Luca Pisaroni/Le Choeur D'Astrée/Le Concert D`Astrée/David Comtet/Louis Langree/Yves Castagnet Mozart: Mass in C Minor. Various post-translational modifications (PTMs) fine-tune the functions of almost all eukaryotic proteins, and co-regulation of different types of PTMs has been shown within and between a . Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuu’s.
Introduction Forkhead Box Proteins FOX proteins are transcription factors consisting of more than 55 mammalian proteins and sharing a amino acid long, evolutionarily conserved winged helix DNA-binding region [ 1 ]. FOXM1 is expressed in all replicating cells, but not in quiescent and terminally differentiated cells.
FOXM1 is regulated by numerous oncogenic signals, growth factors, p53, pRb, p19ARF, and itself by auto-regulation [ 67891011 ].
Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that FOXM1 is associated with tumor initiation, promotion, invasion, and metastasis, suggesting that FOXM1 contributes to all major hallmarks of cancer [ 22 ].
Studies have confirmed that FOXM1 expression levels correlate with poor prognosis [ 2324 ].
Moreover, amplifications of FOXM1 gene have been demonstrated in several tumors such as hepatocellular cancer, pancreatic cancer, and glioblastoma multiforme tumors [ 13252627 ]. Therefore, targeting FOXM1 the relay center for cancer development and a potential prognostic marker holds a promising therapeutic intervention.
The majority of the transcription factors are functionally regulated by post-translational modifications PTMs which are essential for normal physiological functions in cells and efficient ways for the cells to respond to multiple extra-cellular stimuli and intra-cellular signals.
Among the various post-translational modifications, the modification by small ubiquitin-related modifier SUMO family has profound effects on regulating normal cell physiology and tumorigenesis [ 28293031323334 ]. In spite of limited sequence identity, SUMO proteins are structurally related to ubiquitin and use a similar three-step enzyme-controlled cascade reaction.
The carboxyl-terminal glycine in the processed SUMO protein covalently binds to an internal lysine residue of the target protein. Even though the three-dimensional structure and conjugation mechanism of SUMO share similarities to those of ubiquitin, the biological functions of SUMOylation are significantly different from those of ubiquitination [ 35 ].
SUMOylation mainly prevents ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal protein degradation and usually enhances protein stability [ 3536 ].
Majority of the SUMO substrates are transcription factors and co-factors. Most importantly, SUMO modification of transcription factors and nuclear receptors has a strong impact on their regulation of transcription of genes [ 3337383940 ], such as SUMO1 modification activates the transcriptional response of p53 [ 41 ] and SUMOylation inhibits NR5A1 activity [ 33 ].
In this regard, understanding the regulation of SUMO processes is vital for various biological processes such as the regulation of transcription and the development of disorders. Therefore, the manipulation of SUMO modification and processes has gained attention as a potential therapeutic intervention.
Extensive studies have shown that FOXM1B is the predominant isoform that is over-expressed in most human cancers and exhibits a higher transforming ability than FOXM1C, the canonical form in most normal cells [ 1017505152 ].Essay about importance of effective communication baile de los pioneros mormon essays (dota lol heroes comparison essay) essay revision guidlines adacap .
Transcription factor Forkhead Box Protein M1 (FOXM1) is a well-known master regulator in controlling cell-cycle pathways essential for DNA replication and mitosis, as well as cell proliferation. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads.
You can change your ad preferences anytime. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in gene regulation during development. DNA methylation, which is probably the most important and best-studied epigenetic mechanism, can be abnormally.
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