Summarizing is especially helpful. Review them by reading words aloud, repeating the definition and then checking to see if you are correct. If you can verbalize the information, you increase the probability of understanding it.
Fleming and Mills suggested four modalities that seemed to reflect the experiences of the students and teachers. Although there is some overlap between them they are defined as follows.
This preference includes the depiction of information in maps, spider diagrams, charts, graphs, flow charts, labelled diagrams, and all the symbolic arrows, circles, hierarchies and other devices, that people use to represent what could have been presented in words.
This mode could have been called Graphic G as that better explains what it covers. It does include designs, whitespace, patterns, shapes and the different formats that are used to highlight and convey information. When a whiteboard is used to draw a diagram with meaningful symbols for the relationship between different things that will be helpful for those with a Visual preference.
The Aural preference includes talking out loud as well as talking to oneself. Often people with this preference want to sort things out by speaking first, rather than sorting out their ideas and then speaking.
They may say again what has already been said, or ask an obvious and previously answered question. They have need to say it themselves and they learn through saying it — their way. This preference is for information displayed as words.
Not surprisingly, many teachers and students have a strong preference for this mode. Being able to write well and read widely are attributes sought by employers of graduates. This preference emphasizes text-based input and output — reading and writing in all its forms but especially manuals, reports, essays and assignments.
People who prefer this modality are often addicted to PowerPoint, the Internet, lists, diaries, dictionaries, thesauri, quotations and words, words, words… Note that most PowerPoint presentations and the Internet, GOOGLE and Wikipedia are essentially suited to those with this preference as there is seldom an auditory channel or a presentation that uses Visual symbols.
The key is the reality or concrete nature of the example. If it can be grasped, held, tasted, or felt it will probably be included.
People with this as a strong preference learn from the experience of doing something and they value their own background of experiences and less so, the experiences of others. It is possible to write or speak Kinesthetically if the topic is strongly based in reality.
An assignment that requires the details of who will do what and when, is suited to those with this preference, as is a case study or a working example of what is intended or proposed. There are seldom instances where one mode is used, or is sufficient, so that is why there is a four-part VARK profile.
That is why the VARK questionnaire provides four scores and also why there are mixtures of those four modes. Those who do not have a standout mode with one preference score well above other scores, are defined as multimodal.
They are of two types. There are those who are flexible in their communication preferences and who switch from mode to mode depending on what they are working with. They are context specific. They choose a single mode to suit the occasion or situation.
If they are to watch the demonstration of a technique they will be expressing their Kinesthetic preference. There are others who are not satisfied until they have had input or output in all of their preferred modes. They take longer to gather information from each mode and, as a result, they often have a deeper and broader understanding.
They may be seen as procrastinators or slow-deliverers but some may be merely gathering all the information before acting — and their decision making and learning may be better because of that breadth of understanding.
Testimonials We try to encourage our students to understand how they learn and so go on to choose and plan their own learning. Pat Carmichael As I reviewed the findings from my questionnaire, it was an "aha" moment As you say the profile is not set in concrete, for which I am grateful, as I feel I can now look back and recognise different learning styles at different times in my life.VARK, first suggested by Fleming and Mills () is an acronym which stands for Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic learning preferences.
These learning preferences are the preferred way learners naturally choose to take in information. The VARK system categorizes learners into four styles: Visual, Aural, Reading/Writing, and Kinesthetic.
Many learners show strength in more than one learning style. According to Tech News, the breakdown of learning styles varies, but a typical K classroom contains 30 percent visual learners, 25 percent auditory learners and 15 percent kinesthetic learners, with the remaining 30 percent consisting of students with mixed learning styles.
The VARK Helpsheets Visual Study Strategies (V) Aural Study Strategies (A) Read/write Study Strategies (R) Kinesthetic Study Strategies (K) Multimodal Study Strategies (MM) Multimodal Study Strategies If you have multiple preferences you are in the majority as approximately 60% of any population fits that.
Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learning Styles (VAK) The VAK learning style uses the three main sensory receivers: Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic (movement) to determine the dominant learning style. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR BRAILLE LITERACY Diane P.
Wormsley and Frances Mary D'Andrea, Editors REPRINTS Determining the Reading Medium for Students with Visual Impairments: A Diagnostic Teaching Approach*.